Web Application Architecture: Working,Components,Types,Trends 2022

Understanding the Fundamentals of Web Application Architecture

The internet is all about browsing websites and attaining the desired response. The number of internet users in the present decade is the highest and the number is rapidly growing due to advancements in technology. For the users, the entire process is simple, but everything major happens behind the scenes. Every time a user sends a request, it goes to the server which processes the request to take all the necessary actions. Afterward, the response is sent to the browser to provide the result to the user. However, websites are different from web applications in several ways.

Web applications have an in-depth architecture that has several complex components. Each component plays a significant role. This article explains all about web application architecture along with its components, trends, best practices, and types.

web application architecture

What is Web Application Architecture?

Any application software that runs on a web server and its responses are provided via a browser interface to the user. Unlike computer-based software programs, web applications do not run on any operating system of the device. A web application architecture defines the interaction between systems, applications, and databases components together.

Whenever a user sends a request to open a web page, the server will send the file to the browser. Afterward, it uses the files to showcase the page and the user can interact with the page. The functionality of the web application is also similar to website, but the difference lies in the code parsing.

In a web application, the code may or may not have any dedicated specifications on the response depending on the input received by the user. Due to this reason, a web app architecture comes with sub-components and external applications of the application.

In simpler terms, a web application architecture is a structural framework that determines the interaction between different web components (client and server).

Components of Web Application Architecture:

Web application architecture comes with two types of web application architecture: Structural components, and user interface app components.

  • Structural Components:
    As the name suggests, these components make the structure of the application. These components include the client or web browser, database server, and web app server which are directly responsible for functions deciding the user interactions within the application. In the majority of cases, JavaScript, CSS, and HTML are used to create these components. However, it all varies with the web app developer.
  • User Interface Components:
    The other one is the user interface components that contribute to the visual interface of the app. However, unlike structural components, that do not interact with the architecture, but are limited to displaying the web page. These components include a dashboard, widget, settings, notifications, and many other visual elements that help in making the user experience better. In other words, these components are directly responsible for the UX or the web app.

Web Application Architecture Layers:

Every web application architecture is built based on a layered architecture. However, it all depends on the app scale. Large applications may have four to six layers whereas small applications may have three layers. Each layer functions independently and its components are closed. Below are the four commonest layers of web application architecture.

  1. Presentation Layer:
    The presentation layer aids in communication between the browser and the user interface of the application that eases the overall user interaction. Every presentation layer is created through JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and its frameworks.
  2. Business Layer:
    The business layer helps in processing the browser requests, performs the business logic of the requests, and shares the same back to the previous layer. This layer primarily determines the business rules of the web app.
  3. Data Access Layer:
    The data access layer is used to access data from XML, binary files, and other types of storage. In addition, it also helps in creating, reading, updating, and deleting operations.
  4. Data Service Layer:
    The final one is the data service layer which ensures data security and stores the entire data. This layer safeguards the data by separating the app business logic from the client-side.

Types of Web Application Architecture :

With different types of web applications, the architecture differs as well. The right architecture will allow the developer to get the best outcome from the web application and fulfill the app’s purpose as well. Here are all the various types of web application architectures.

  1. Single Page Application Architecture:
    Single Page Application architecture or SPA offers smoother app performance than websites and provides an interactive experience to the users. This architecture contains a single page with content elements, allowing users to load just a single page but with better interaction with the app.Rather than loading a new page with every request, it loads the relevant web page and updates the same whenever the information is requested by the user. Web applications based on this architecture send requests just for the required parts of the web page rather than loading new pages. Gmail, Google Maps, PayPal, and Pinterest are some of the industry-leading single-page applications.
  2. Multi-Page Application:
    Sometimes when the websites are very large, making use of the SPA architecture does not seem effective. In that case, organizations prefer to go with a multi-page application where the page is reloaded to send data to the server through the browser rather than updating just the relevant information.With this architecture, large websites can be loaded easily with the utmost information. Multi-page application architecture is majorly used in eCommerce websites and applications. Amazon, Alibaba, and eBay are among the biggest examples of multi-page applications.
  3. Microservices :
    Many large sites use monolithic web application architecture which comes with the main issue of tightly coupled components. The alternative to this is using microservices architecture which separates the app into individual components that are not dependent on each other. With that in mind, it is not mandatory to develop each component in the same programming language.As the developers do not have to develop each component, it provides them with larger flexibility to pick the language/ technology as per their preference. This flexibility for the developers allows them to be more productive while completing the process in the least time possible. The top companies using this web application architecture include Etsy, Netflix, Uber, and Twitter.:
  4. Progressive Web Apps:
    One of the best things about progressive web apps is that they are compatible with every device. Whether it is a desktop, a tablet, or a smartphone, these apps can adjust to any device with ease. Rather than the app store, these apps can be shared and found just through their URL.Furthermore, there are several other perks of having these apps including a user-friendly experience, lightweight, ability to be added to the home screen, and offline working capability.Trivago, Pinterest, Starbucks, Telegram, and Treebo are the top companies with progressive web applications. Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Platform, and Microsoft Azure are the top providers of serverless architectures in the industry.
  5. Serverless Architecture:
    The last on this list is the serverless architecture which is different from the traditional way of software functioning. In the traditional method, the execution of the code is stored and managed by the app developer or organization.On the other hand, in serverless architecture, there is no need to have physical servers as the entire execution of code is managed by cloud service providers. Here the web applications are created and deployed on the third-party cloud servers.One key feature of this architecture is that it eradicates the issues related to physical servers.
    Function-as-a-Service and Backend-as-a-Service are two types of serverless architectures. The former emphasizes more on events where it breaks the app into small functions that focus on code whereas the latter is more about frontend development tasks.

Working of a Web Application :

Even though there are several types of web applications available, the basic web application component codes are common. There are two different types of codes used in a web application; client-side code and server-side code.

  • Client-Side Code:
    Also known as frontend, the client-side code is mainly written in JavaScript, CSS, and HTML. These codes are stored in the browser as well. In other words, this code is responsible for user interaction of the site.
  • Server-Side Code:
    SSC or server-side code functions on the backend where they are responsible for controlling the entire business login. Furthermore, this code will respond to every HTTP request received from the user. The programming languages used in writing server-side code are Ruby, Java, and Python, among others.

Web Application Process:

  1. The first thing a user does is input their request to the web server by using a web application or a browser.
  2. This request is forwarded by the webserver to the most suitable web application server.
  3. Afterwards, the web application server completes the task requested by the user and produces the right results.
  4. Once completed, the earlier generated results are sent to the user along with the demanded information to the webserver from the application server. The web server responds to the user’s request and displays the information to the user.

Web Application Trends of 2022:

Web applications trends are changing every year and a developer should be aware of such trends so that they can keep up with the industry leaders. These trends allow the developer to create a web app that the users want, making their created web app more usable and generating better traffic. Below are the web application trends of 2022 that every developer should know.

  1. Progressive Web Applications:
    Progressive web apps or PWAs have been widely used in web app development for a very long time, but it is not going anywhere soon. Even though it runs on the browser, it provides users with the native mobile app experience. With a great conversion rate, user engagement, and less maintenance cost, one thing is sure progressive web applications will be a lasting trend in the industry.
  2. AI Chabot:
    AI Chatbots are based on quick learning AI that acts as a human to solve common queries of the users. They understand the user behavior and respond accordingly. The best thing about this is that these bots can function 24X7 without any human intervention, making it a potential web app trend of 2022.
  3. Blockchain:
    Blockchain is considered among the safest technologies in the present time as the contracts running on these networks cannot be changed. Moreover, its peer-to-peer architecture provides a ledger with high decentralization and transparency. Data can be transferred on different networks without the need for any mediators and it is stored in a public or private network. Using open-source systems is also possible as it can minimize potential cyber threats.
  4. Virtual Reality:
    Virtual reality has gained immense traction in the last few years due to the increasing number of technology and internet users. It is speculated that the number of VR users in 2022 will be record-breaking. As the trend of remote working is on the rise, VR is sure to become one of the biggest trends in web app development.
  5. Serverless Architecture:
    In the present time, organizations want to handle the least amount of tasks possible. As web applications need physical servers to run, serverless architecture is becoming highly popular. It eradicates the use and maintenance of such servers by the organization. However, every server is managed by third parties which ultimately reduces the development costs and enhances data security.
  6. Single-Page Applications:
    SPAs are one of the recent trends in web applications. Based on JavaScript, this architecture loads an HTML page in the browser and updates the page content whenever required. The reason why this is going to become trendy in 2022 is that it updates the page content with relevant information without refreshing it, making it faster and more effective. Moreover, they consume less space on servers and are proven to be highly cost-effective.

Top Web Application Frameworks 2022:

Every web app should be created effectively and by keeping its users in mind so that it could be successful in the long run. Web application frameworks do the same by helping the developers in understanding and meeting the user’s demands and creating the app effectively. Not just the architecture, but the right web framework plays a crucial role in development as well. Below mentioned are the top web application frameworks that you should know about.

  • Django.
  • Play.
  • Angular.
  • Laravel.
  • Express.
  • ASP.NET.
  • Ruby on Rails.
  • Spring.
  • CodeIgniter.

Best Practices for Web Application Infrastructure:

To get the appropriate outcome from web app architecture, it is essential to use the best practices. These practices ensure that the created architecture is the right for the application. Let’s dig deeper into these practices which will help you in your web application architecture.

  • Know the Goals:
    Before you begin working on the web app architecture, the first thing that you should be clear about should be your goals. Communicate with your team members regarding these goals and create a blueprint of the architecture that will help you in achieving the goals. These goals could be the timeline of the web app or the features that you want to include in it.
  • Understand your Limitations:
    Even the experts will have certain limitations while working on technology including web app architecture. Due to this reason, it is not always possible to attain successful results when the limitations are not measured. Considering that fact, you should always be aware of your technical limitations and tackle them accordingly so that you could set expectations that you can achieve within the given resources.
  • Fix the Problems as they Arise:
    Many developers make the mistake of waiting for the web app to release before they can fix the issues. Not only does it become complex to fix the errors, but can hamper the reputation of the app as well. The best practice is to fix the issues as soon as they arise so that it does not hinder the app’s performance.
  • Be Unique:
    Without a doubt, there are tons of successful web application architectures. Sometimes developers shortlist some successful apps’ architecture, replicate the same and add certain customizations for their app architecture. However, they forget a crucial factor that an architecture that has been successful for another web application doesn’t need to be suitable for their app as well. Due to this reason, their app may never become successful. The right practice is to create an architecture based on your business logic and goals.

How ThinkSys Inc Help Your Web Application Grow?

Web application architecture is directly related to the success of the web app. Using the right practices combined with following the right trends is the key to staying ahead of the competition. ThinkSys Inc has a team of professional and qualified web application architects who will analyze your requirements, the challenges, and the limitations that might come in the way.

With the proper study of your web application requirements, our professionals will determine the crucial parameters on which the right architecture will be decided. Furthermore, the business needs of your web app along with your technical needs will be examined to give you the right web application that aligns with your business. If you want to dig deeper into our service then,

Feel free to connect with our professionals who will guide you with the entire process.

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